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Великие композиторы | Гуно (Gounod) Шарль Франсуа

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Статистика

Яндекс.Метрика




Гуно (Gounod) Шарль Франсуа


Биография великого композитора Гуно

портрет композитора Гуно

Гуно (Gounod) Шарль (1818-1893) - французский композитор. Член Института Франции (1866). Учился в Парижской консерватории у Ф. Галеви (контрапункт), Ж. Ф. Лесюэра, Ф. Паэра (композиция). Период 1840-1843 провёл в Италии , частично в Вене и Германии. Плодотворное творческое влияние оказала на Гуно музыка В. А. Моцарта (особенно опера «Дон Жуан»), а также Ф. Мендельсона и Р. Шумана. В 1843-1848 церковный органист и регент, одновременно писал духовную музыку. С начала 1850-х гг. развернулась его активная музыкально-общественная и творческая деятельность. В 1852-1860 директор «Орфеона» и руководитель певческих классов в парижских школах. В 1870-1875 жил в Лондоне, с 1871 дирижёр Королевского хорового общества.

Гуно - один из крупнейших представителей французской оперы 19 в. Среди ранних опер («Сафо», 1850; «Окровавленная монахиня», 1854) выделяется комическая опера «Лекарь поневоле» (по Мольеру, 1857). Гуно явился основоположником нового жанра во французском оперном искусстве - лирической оперы. Его лучшее творение - опера «Фауст» (1859). В первоначальной редакции опера шла с разговорными диалогами, в 1869 Гуно заменил их речитативами (добавил также балетные сцены). Коренным образом переосмыслен литературный источник (1-я часть одноименной трагедии И. В. Гёте ): вместо сложной философской проблематики акцентирована лирическая драма, развёртывающаяся на широком бытовом фоне. Центральным персонажем стала Маргарита. Гуно создал индивидуальные, психологически правдивые музыкальные характеристики, что особенно ярко проявилось в обрисовке образа героини оперы. Гуно интонационно обновил французскую оперу, обратившись к мелодическому строю современного бытового романса. Те же художественные принципы претворены в лирических операх «Мирейль» (по мотивам поэмы провансальского поэта Ф. Мистраля, 1863) и «Ромео и Джульетта» (по трагедии У. Шекспира, 1865). Значителен также вклад Гуно во французский романс.

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