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Великие композиторы | Монюшко (Moniuszko) Станислав

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Статистика

Яндекс.Метрика




Монюшко (Moniuszko) Станислав


Биография великого композитора Монюшко

портрет композитора Монюшко

Монюшко (Momuszko) Станислав (1819-1872) - польский композитор. дирижёр. Учился в Варшаве у А. Фрейера (фортепьяно , орган), затем в Минске у Д. Стефановича (композиция) и в Берлине у К. Ф. Рунгенхагена. С 1840 работал в Вильнюсе церковным органистом, театральным дирижёром, давал уроки фортепьяно и теории музыки (в т. ч. Ц. А. Кюи). С 1858 главный дирижёр «Театра Бельки» в Варшаве: с 1 864 преподавал в Музыкальном институте, среди учеников - З. Носковский. Монюшко неоднократно дирижировал своими сочинениями в Петербурге, поддерживал дружеские связи с русскими музыкантами (посвятил А. С. Даргомыжскому фантастическую увертюру «Сказка», 1848). В 1856 А. Н. Серов в рецензии на авторский концерт Монюшко в Петербурге отметил мелодичность свежесть, прозрачную оркестровку и оригинальность музыки . Монюшко - крупнейший польский композитор середины 19 века, создатель национальной оперы (свыше 15), первых национальных произведений в области симфонической музыки, один из основоположников национального камерно - вокального жанра. Произведениям Монюшко свойственны яркая мелодичность, лиризм, опора на национальный песенный и танцевальный фольклор, доступность музыкального языка, а в музыкально - сценических произведениях - мастерство в создании индивидуальных характеристик (особенно комических), в построении массовых, ансамблевых и сольных сцен. Глубоко усвоив народно-песенную культуру, Монюшко создавал оригинальные мелодии, многие из которых стали считаться народными. Главные черты композиторского мышления Монюшко ярко воплощены в опере «Галька», отражающей социальные конфликты и отличающейся демократической направленностью. Патриотические и демократические взгляды нашли выражение также в 12 «домашних песенниках», опере «Страшный двор» («Зачарованный замок»), запрещенной царскими властями после нескольких спектаклей в 1865, опере «Пария» (1869) и др. Монюшко был знаком с Б. Сметаной, поставившим «Гальку» в Праге (1868), Ф. Листом, издавшим полонезы Монюшко, и др.

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